MC Optimization

Recursive Integration

Monte Carlo Maximization

EM Algorithm

Simulated Annealing

Fundamental idea: A change of scale, called temperature, allows for faster moves on the surface of the function of hh to maximize, whose negative is called energy.

It is important to note that if the larger TT is, accepting one decreasing is more likely.

Example: To maximize h(x)=[cos(50x)+sin(20x)]2h(x)=[\cos(50x)+\sin(20x)]^2.

We can use the following Julia code to solve this problem:

r = 0.5
function T(t)
return 1/log(t)
# target function
function h(x)
return (cos(50x) + sin(20x))^2
N = 2500
x = ones(N)
y = ones(N)
for t = 1:(N-1)
# step 1
at = max(x[t]-r, 0)
bt = min(x[t]+r, 1)
u = rand() * (bt - at) + at
# step 2
rho = min(exp( (h(u) - h(x[t])) / T(t) ), 1)
if rand() < rho
x[t+1] = u
y[t+1] = h(u)
x[t+1] = x[t]
y[t+1] = y[t]

The trajectory of 2500 pairs (x(t),y(t))(x^{(t)}, y^{(t)}) is